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  • 1. Hatta, Fazleen H M
    et al.
    Lundblad, Mia
    Ramsjo, Margareta
    Kang, Ju-Hee
    Roh, Hyung-Keun
    Bertilsson, Leif
    Eliasson, Erik
    Aklillu, Eleni
    Differences in CYP2C9 Genotype and Enzyme Activity Between Swedes and Koreans of Relevance for Personalized Medicine: Role of Ethnicity, Genotype, Smoking, Age, and Sex2015In: Omics, ISSN 1536-2310, E-ISSN 1557-8100, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 346-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global personalized medicine demands the characterization of person-to-person and between-population differences in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. CYP2C9 pharmacokinetic pathway is subject to modulation by both genetic and environmental factors. CYP2C9 genotype-based dose recommendations (e.g., for warfarin) is advocated. However, the overall contribution of genotype for variation in enzyme activity may differ between populations. We evaluated the importance of ethnicity, genotype, smoking, body weight, age, and sex for CYP2C9 enzyme activity. CYP2C9 genotype and phenotype was determined in 148 Swedes and 146 Koreans using losartan as a probe. CYP2C9 enzyme activity was assessed using urinary losartan/metabolite E-3174 ratio. The frequency of CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (*2 and *3) was significantly higher in Swedes (10.8% and 12.5%) than in Koreans (0% and 5.8%). In matched genotypes, CYP2C9 enzyme activity was significantly lower in Swedes compared to Koreans (p<0.0001). In a univariate analysis, age, weight, ethnicity, genotype, and smoking were significant predictors of CYP2C9 phenotype. A stepwise multivariate analysis indicated ethnicity, genotype, and smoking remained as significant predictors of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, accounting for 50% of the total variance. In both study populations, CYP2C9 genotype was a significant predictor of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, but its contribution in explaining the total variance was lower in Koreans (26.6%) than Swedes (40%). In conclusion, we report significantly lower CYP2C9 enzyme activity in Swedes compared to Koreans, partly but not exclusively due to CYP2C9 pharmacogenetic variations. Ethnicity and environment factors need to be considered together with genotype for population-specific dose optimization and global personalized medicine.

  • 2. Paues Göranson, Sofie
    et al.
    Thålin, Charlotte
    Lundström, Annika
    Hållström, Lars
    Lasselin, Julie
    Wallén, Håkan
    Soop, Anne
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Mobarrez, Fariborz
    Circulating H3Cit is elevated in a human model of endotoxemia and can be detected bound to microvesicles.2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 12641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early diagnosis of sepsis is crucial since prompt interventions decrease mortality. Citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit), released from neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) upon binding of platelets to neutrophils following endotoxin stimulation, has recently been proposed a promising blood biomarker in sepsis. Moreover, microvesicles (MVs), which are released during cell activation and apoptosis and carry a variety of proteins from their parental cells, have also been shown to be elevated in sepsis. In a randomized and placebo-controlled human model of endotoxemia (lipopolysaccharide injection; LPS), we now report significant LPS-induced elevations of circulating H3Cit in 22 healthy individuals. We detected elevations of circulating H3Cit by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as well as bound to MVs quantified by flow cytometry. H3Cit-bearing MVs expressed neutrophil and/or platelet surface markers, indicating platelet-neutrophil interactions. In addition, in vitro experiments revealed that H3Cit can bind to phosphatidylserine exposed on platelet derived MVs. Taken together; our results demonstrate that NETs can be detected in peripheral blood during endotoxemia by two distinct H3Cit-specific methods. Furthermore, we propose a previously unrecognized mechanism by which H3Cit may be disseminated throughout the vasculature by the binding to MVs.

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