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  • 1.
    Andersson, Helene
    Sophiahemmet University.
    MRSA and other resistant bacteria: prevalence, patient and staff experiences, wounds and infection control2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major and serious global problem in healthcare. Limited treatment options for infections caused by these organisms can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Sweden has a low prevalence of antibiotic resistance compared to most other countries but this presents an increasing problem for society and healthcare even in Sweden. The overall aim of this thesis was to illuminate potential problems related to antibiotic resistance from different perspectives: assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) or other resistant bacteria, and associated wound types, patient and health staff experiences when confronted with resistant bacteria infection, and the occurrence of such infections in the nursing home environment. In the first study a total of 2172 patients admitted to hospital or as out-patient visit at a University hospital during one day were examined with the purpose to identify all wounds, wound types and wound characteristics, and to identify bacteria in all wounds, particularly MRSA, VRE and multi-resistant Gramnegative rods. Four hundred and eight (19%) patients had a total of 668 wounds. Of these, 248 wounds, from 216 patients were cultured. Two unknown MRSA-patients were identified. No patient with VRE was found and there was a low prevalence of other multi-resistant bacteria. In the second study fifteen patients with MRSA infected wounds were interviewed. The aim was to ascertain and describe patients’ knowledge, perceptions and experiences of being MRSA-positive. The interviews were analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. From the analysis three categories and one overall theme were identified. Results showed that information about the MRSA diagnosis often caused a shock-like reaction. The patients’ perception of being MRSA-positive was that it was stigmatizing like the plague or leprosy; they felt dirty and a severe threat to their environment. Fears of infecting someone else and being rejected were commonly expressed. Knowledge and empathy from staff involved in their care was crucial to optimise patients’ experiences. Staff’s needs of education to meet patients’ demands for information, and to prevent spread of antibiotic contamination was essential. In the third study eight nurses and seven assistant nurses from different hospital wards and nursing homes were interviewed regarding their experiences of caring for MRSA-positive patients. Qualitative content analysis was carried out when analysing the data and three themes were identified during the process. Stress and too high workload were factors which were described to cause concerns in the caring situation. A major concern was that nurses felt at risk of becoming infected themselves and then transmitting the infection to other patients and to family members. Knowledge and ignorance about MRSA affected the nurses’ caring; ignorance made them afraid and insecure while knowledge and understanding shaped confidence in their role as caregivers. In the fourth study 560 residents in a total of 67 wards, in nine nursing homes were investigated for prevalence of MRSA, VRE and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) - producing Enterobacteriaceae and if carriage of resistant bacteria was related to antibiotic treatment, other risk factors and/or staff´s adherence to guidelines for infection control. In all 296 staff members were interviewed and observed. No resident was positive for MRSA or VRE. Fifteen residents were found to be ESBL-positive. Usage of antibiotics was higher in wards where ESBL-positive residents were detected and there was an indication that there was transmission of ESBL between residents. Staff´s adherence to infection control guidelines sometimes revealed shortcomings but no significant difference regarding adherence to the guidelines could be found. In conclusion: Prevalence of MRSA appears low in both hospitalized patients, out-patients and nursing home residents. Adherence to infection control guidelines among healthcare staff, however, needs further improvement. MRSA colonized patients experienced psychological pressure and stigmatization. Knowledge and empathy from staff involved in their care is crucial to optimise patients’ experiences. Staff education to meet patients' demands for information and the prevention of contamination is essential

  • 2.
    Andersson, Helene
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Andreassen Gleissman, Sissel
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Experiences of nursing staff caring for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.2016In: International Nursing Review, ISSN 0020-8132, E-ISSN 1466-7657, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 233-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a resistant variant of S. aureus and can cause pneumonia, septicaemia and, in some cases, death. Caring for patients with antibiotic resistant bacteria is a challenge for healthcare personnel. There is a risk of spreading the bacteria among patients and of healthcare personnel being infected themselves.

    AIM: To describe nursing staffs' experiences of caring for patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus in Sweden.

    METHOD: A descriptive qualitative approach was used and 15 nurses from different hospitals and care units, including emergency and geriatric wards and nursing homes in Stockholm, were interviewed. All nurses had been involved in the care of patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, but not on a regular basis. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    FINDINGS: Three themes emerged from the data: feeling ignorant, afraid and insecure, feeling competent and secure and feeling stressed and overworked. The more knowledge the nurses acquired about methicillin-resistant S. aureus, the more positive was their attitude to caring for these patients.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Caring for patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus without adequate knowledge of how to protect oneself and other patients against transmission may provoke anxiety among personnel. Guidelines, memos and adequate information at the right time are of central importance. Healthcare personnel must feel safe in their role as caregivers. All patients have the right to have the same quality of care regardless of the diagnosis and a lack of knowledge influences the level of care given.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING AND HEALTH POLICY: This study demonstrates the importance of education when caring for patients with infectious diseases. Hopefully, knowledge gained from our study can provide guidance for future health care when new diseases and infections occur.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Helene
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Andreassen, Sissel
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Emotional reactions when caring for MRSA-positive patients: ignorance and fear versus knowledge and securityArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Helene
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Kalin, Mats
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Ortqvist, Ake
    Är MRSA-patienter olika smittsamma i olika län?2009In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, no 7, p. 412-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Helene
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Sophiahemmet University.
    MRSA - global threat and personal disaster: Patients' experiences2011In: International Nursing Review, ISSN 0020-8132, E-ISSN 1466-7657, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ANDERSSON H., LINDHOLM C. & FOSSUM B. (2011) MRSA - global threat and personal disaster: patients' experiences. International Nursing Review58, 47-53 Aim:  To ascertain and describe the patients' knowledge, perceptions and experiences of being methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) positive. Background:  Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a serious global threat. MRSA can cause wound infection, pneumonia, septicaemia and mortality. This qualitative study has focused on patients' experiences of living with MRSA. Methods:  Fifteen patients with MRSA-infected wounds were interviewed. All data were transcribed verbatim and analysed according to content analysis. Findings:  Information about the MRSA diagnosis often caused a shock-like reaction. Patients' perception of being MRSA positive was stigmatizing as plague or leprosy; they felt dirty and felt that they were a severe threat to their environment. Fears of infecting someone else and being rejected were commonly expressed. The key findings emerged as a theme: Being exposed to others' shortcomings and being a threat to others' health. Three categories were identified: understanding and emotional reactions, treatment by the healthcare professionals and consequences and expectations. Gaps in both patient and staff knowledge of MRSA led to unnecessary misunderstandings, causing fear, social isolation and suffering. Conclusions:  Living with MRSA can be extremely stressful for the patients. Knowledge and empathy from staff involved in their care is crucial to optimize patients' experiences. Staff education to meet patients' demand for information and prevent contamination is essential.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Helene
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Iversen, Aina
    Giske, Christian G
    Örtqvist, Åke
    Kalin, Mats
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in residents of nursing homes in a Swedish municipality: healthcare staff knowledge of and adherence to principles of basic infection prevention2012In: Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases, ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 641-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Background: The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in residents living in Swedish nursing homes, and if carriage of resistant bacteria was related to antibiotic treatment, other risk factors, and/or staff's adherence to guidelines for infection control. Methods: Five hundred and sixty residents from 9 nursing homes on a total of 67 wards participated in the study and had microbiological cultures taken. Faecal samples were obtained from 495 residents (88.3%). ESBL-positive residents were followed for 2 y with repeated sampling. Two hundred and ninety-six staff members were interviewed and observed regarding familiarity with and adherence to infection control guidelines. Results: No resident was positive for MRSA or VRE. Fifteen of the residents were found to be ESBL-positive. Residents living on wards where ESBL-positive residents were identified had been treated more frequently with antibiotics (42%), compared to those on wards where no residents with ESBL were found (28%; p = 0.02). ESBL-positive Escherichia coli isolates from residents living in adjacent rooms were found to be closely genetically related when analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, indicating transmission between residents. Staff adherence to infection control guidelines sometimes revealed shortcomings, but no significant differences regarding compliance to the guidelines could be found. Conclusion: Carriage of resistant bacteria was uncommon and only ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified in Swedish nursing homes. Usage of antibiotics was higher on wards where ESBL-positive residents were detected and there was an indication of transmission of ESBL between residents.

  • 7. Lindholm, Christina
    et al.
    Andersson, Helene
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Jörbeck, H
    Wounds scrutiny in a Swedish hospital: prevalence, nursing care and bacteriology, including MRSA2005In: Journal of Wound Care, ISSN 0969-0700, E-ISSN 2052-2916, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 313-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To identify all wounds, wound types and wound characteristics; to identify bacteria in all wounds, particularly MRSA, VRE and multi-resistant Gram-negative rods;. METHOD: All patients admitted to or visiting hospital clinics were examined. If the patient had a wound, a questionnaire was filled in by a nurse, and if the wound met the inclusion criteria swabs were taken. RESULTS: A total of 2172 patients were admitted to or visited the hospital; 408 (19%) had a total of 668 wounds. Of this number, 248 were cultured. Thirty-seven patients had pressure ulcers, 83 had leg and foot ulcers and 288 patients had other types of wounds. Nursing care varied according to wound type and ward. Fifty-eight different types of wound dressings were used. Cleansing was performed with saline in 58% of the wounds. The mean number of dressing changes was once daily. Wounds were painful in 37% of the cases, with a predominance of leg and foot ulcers (51%). Many patients did not receive analgesia. MRSA was identified in two patients. No VRE was identified, and there was a low prevalence of multi-resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CONCLUSION: The study provided important information for future improvement of wound care in a university hospital. Fewer resistant bacteria, particularly MRSA, were identified than expected.

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