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  • 1. Al-Ani, Amer N
    et al.
    Samuelsson, Bodil
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Tidermark, Jan
    Norling, Asa
    Ekström, Wilhelmina
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Hedström, Margareta
    Early operation on patients with a hip fracture improved the ability to return to independent living: a prospective study of 850 patients2008In: The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American volume, ISSN 1535-1386, Vol. 90, no 7, p. 1436-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The outcome for many patients with a hip fracture remains poor. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the timing of surgery in such patients could influence the short-term clinical outcome. METHODS: We included 850 consecutive patients with a hip fracture who were admitted to the hospital during one year in a prospective study. Three cutoff limits for a comparison of early and late operation were defined. The outcome (the ability to return to independent living, risk for the development of pressure ulcers, length of the hospital stay, and mortality rate) for patients who had an operation within twenty-four, thirty-six, and forty-eight hours was compared with the outcome for those who had an operation at a later time. RESULTS: Patients who had the operation more than thirty-six and forty-eight hours after admission were less likely to return to independent living within four months (odds ratio, 0.44 and 0.33, respectively), whereas there was no significant difference with use of the twenty-four-hour cutoff limit. The incidence of pressure ulcers in the groups that had the operation later was increased at all three cutoff limits (a delay of more than twenty-four hours, more than thirty-six hours, and more than forty-eight hours) (odds ratio, 2.19, 3.42, and 4.34, respectively). The length of hospitalization was also increased in the groups that had the later operation (median, fourteen compared with eighteen days, fifteen compared with nineteen days, and fifteen compared with twenty-one days, respectively) (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The importance of surgical timing remained significant after adjusting for several possible confounders (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Early compared with late operative treatment of patients with a hip fracture is associated with an improved ability to return to independent living, a reduced risk for the development of pressure ulcers, and a shortened hospital stay.

  • 2. Hellström, Per M
    et al.
    Samuelsson, Bodil
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Al-Ani, Amer N
    Hedström, Margareta
    Normal gastric emptying time of a carbohydrate-rich drink in elderly patients with acute hip fracture: a pilot study2017In: BMC Anesthesiology, ISSN 1471-2253, E-ISSN 1471-2253, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 23-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines for fasting in elderly patients with acute hip fracture are the same as for other trauma patients, and longer than for elective patients. The reason is assumed stress-induced delayed gastric emptying with possible risk of pulmonary aspiration. Prolonged fasting in elderly patients may have serious negative metabolic consequences. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the preoperative gastric emptying was delayed in elderly women scheduled for surgery due to acute hip fracture.

    METHODS: In a prospective study gastric emptying of 400 ml 12.6% carbohydrate rich drink was investigated in nine elderly women, age 77-97, with acute hip fracture. The emptying time was assessed by the paracetamol absorption technique, and lag phase and gastric half-emptying time was compared with two gender-matched reference groups: ten elective hip replacement patients, age 45-71 and ten healthy volunteers, age 28-55.

    RESULTS: The mean gastric half-emptying time in the elderly study group was 53 ± 5 (39-82) minutes with an expected gastric emptying profile. The reference groups had a mean half-emptying time of 58 ± 4 (41-106) and 59 ± 5 (33-72) minutes, indicating normal gastric emptying time in elderly with hip fracture.

    CONCLUSION: This pilot study in women with an acute hip fracture shows no evidence of delayed gastric emptying after an orally taken carbohydrate-rich beverage during the pre-operative fasting period. This implies no increased risk of pulmonary aspiration in these patients. Therefore, we advocate oral pre-operative management with carbohydrate-rich beverage in order to mitigate fasting-induced additive stress in the elderly with hip fracture.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02753010 . Registered 17 April 2016, retrospectively.

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  • 3.
    Samuelsson, Bodil
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Gender differences in patients with hip fracture: aspects on care and recovery2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hip fractures in the elderly are common and impose a substantial burden on the healthcare system. This fracture population consists of many subgroups that often require differentiated and extensive acute and postfracture care. The aim of this thesis was to basically characterise a hip fracture population at time of admission, present postoperative results and discuss aspects that may influence recovery. Gender differences are specifically addressed.  Study I, II and IV derive from a consecutive series of 2213 patients with hip fracture admitted to four major hospitals in Stockholm, while Study III was a small pilot study.      In Study I we investigated the effect of time-to-surgery on: ability to return to own home, incidence of pressure ulcers, length of stay (LOS), and mortality. Patients who had surgery within 24, 36 or 48 hours were compared with those who had surgery later. The ability to return to own home was affected in patients who had to wait longer than 36 and 48 hours. The incidence of pressure ulcers and LOS increased at all time limits. In Study II we investigated gender differences in two subgroups, characterized by normal cognitive function versus cognitive dysfunction, and whether such differences influenced patient ability to: return to own home, regain walking ability and perform activities of daily living (ADL). Cognitive function was assessed by the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Dysfunction was equally common by gender. Patients with normal function (SPMSQ 8-10) were younger and healthier, resided more often in their own homes and were able to manage ADL independently, with no gender differences. In patients with dysfunction (SPMSQ 0-7), men had more comorbidity on admission, greater loss of walking ability and higher mortality after the fracture episode. We found that cognitive status was the overarching most important factor for predicting outcome. In Study III we examined gastric emptying time of 400 ml carbohydrate rich drink in ten elderly women with acute hip fracture, and compared results with two reference groups of healthy women. The mean half gastric emptying time in the study group was 57 ± 5 (39-82) minutes, to be compared with 58 ±4 (41-106) and 58 ±5 (33-72) in the two reference groups. No adverse event was observed during anesthesia. Consequently, it should be possible to give patients a carbohydrate-rich drink before surgery instead of ordering strict fasting (NPO), which in turn could improve the patients’ chances to recover and regain prefracture status. In Study IV we focused on gender differences in complications; specifically on factors associated with common general complications. Complications were common with an incidence of 59% in men and 56% in women (ns). Most common were urinary tract infection, pressure ulcer, cardiac complications and pneumonia. Male gender emerged as an independent risk factor for suffering from pneumonia, and female gender for urinary tract infection. Besides gender, time-to-surgery, cognitive function, cardiovascular and pulmonary disease on admission were independent risk factors for suffering complication. In conclusion, there are gender differences among patients admitted to a hospital for acute hip fracture, both with regard to status on admission and outcome. Cognitive dysfunction, equally common among women and men, has a major impact on incidence of complication and functional recovery. Men with cognitive dysfunction are at greater risk. With increased awareness of risk factors and gender bias, along with reduced waiting time for surgery, it should be possible to decrease complication incidence and improve outcome. We found no evidence for prolonged gastric emptying time of a carbohydrate-rich beverage, which implies it may be possible to provide patients with a carbohydrate-rich drink before surgery instead of adhering to strict fasting

  • 4.
    Samuelsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Hedström, Margareta I
    Ponzer, Sari
    Söderqvist, Anita
    Samnegård, Eva
    Thorngren, Karl-Göran
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Sääf, Maria
    Dalen, Nils
    Gender differences and cognitive aspects on functional outcome after hip fracture: a 2 years' follow-up of 2,134 patients2009In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 686-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: hip fractures as well as cognitive dysfunction become increasingly prevalent in growing ageing populations. Hip fractures are approximately three times more common in elderly women. OBJECTIVE: we analysed outcome after hip fracture with respect to gender and cognitive function. DESIGN: population-based, prospective cohort study. SETTING: four university hospitals in Stockholm, Sweden. SUBJECTS: a total of 2,134 consecutive patients admitted with hip fracture during 2003. METHODS: gender differences in residence, walking ability and activity of daily living (ADL) were analysed at baseline, after 4 and 24 months in patients with and without intact cognitive function. RESULTS: women were older, more often living alone and had poorer walking ability (P < 0.001). Cognitive dysfunction was equally common by gender. Women were more often treated with a prosthesis (P < 0.001) and sent to rehabilitation (P < 0.001). In the cognitive dysfunction group, men had more co-morbidity (P < 0.001) and total loss of walking ability (P = 0.03), but more often resided in own homes (P = 0.03). There was no gender difference in ADL. CONCLUSION: men had a higher risk for loss of walking ability and death only in patients with cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive function was the most important factor for returning to own home and regain pre-fracture function.

  • 5.
    Samuelsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Hedström, Margareta
    Ponzer, Sari
    Söderqvist, Anita
    Al-Ani, Amer
    Ekström, W
    Mattiasson, Anne-Cathrine
    Thorngren, Karl-Göran
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Dalén, N
    Gender differences in comorbidity and complications after hip fracture: a prospective cohort study of 1,955 Swedish patientsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Samuelsson, Bodil
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Hellström, P M
    Al-Ani, Amer N
    Hedström, Margareta
    Gastric emptying in nine elderly patients with hip fracture: normal emptying time of 400 ml carbohydrate-rich drinkIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
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