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Pain reporting by very old Swedish community dwellers: the role of cognition and function
Sophiahemmet University.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7573-3570
Sophiahemmet University.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0971-5283
2008 (English)In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 20, no 1, 40-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pain is a common and unpleasant problem among elderly people and affects the possibility for them to remain living in their own homes. The aims of this study were therefore to report the prevalence of pain reporting and pain treatment, and their association with functional and cognitive status in a very old population. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based study. Participants were 333, aged 84 years or older, living at home alone or with someone in Kungsholmen, in central Stockholm, Sweden. Information on pain was obtained from interviews. The Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) measured cognitive status and the index of basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) functional status. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the population and logistic regression models to investigate factors associated with pain reporting and pain treatment. RESULTS: The prevalence of pain was 46%, and the prevalence of pain treatment 71%. Results from logistic regression analysis including all variables in the model showed that pain reporting was not associated with age, gender or living conditions. However, pain reporting was correlated with cognitive and functional status. There was no association between pain treatment and age, gender, living conditions, cognitive or functional status. CONCLUSIONS: Pain is common among the oldest old. Our results indicate that cognitive and functional status affect pain reporting. Poor cognitive status was associated with less pain reporting, whereas poor functional status was associated with more pain reporting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 20, no 1, 40-6 p.
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-106PubMedID: 18283227OAI: oai:DiVA.org:shh-106DiVA: diva2:301166
Available from: 2010-03-02 Created: 2010-02-25 Last updated: 2014-10-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Drug Use Among the Very Old Living in Ordinary Households: Aspects on Well-being, Cognitive and Functional Ability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drug Use Among the Very Old Living in Ordinary Households: Aspects on Well-being, Cognitive and Functional Ability
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: In Sweden today a major proportion of the population survive to old ages. To a large extent, the oldest old are capable of living longer in their own households; some of them are very healthy while others have multiple diagnoses or ailments caused by a normal ageing process. This means that many elderly persons receive their health care needs in their own home, and in the future this will be even more common. Drug use of the elderly is a complex field, and many drugs have side effects complicating the medical treatment and decreasing the quality of life.

 

Aim: This thesis aims to explore and describe the medicine use and the medical situation of very old persons (¡Ý84 years) living in ordinary households, and to obtain knowledge of their views on the use of drugs.

Methods: This thesis combines quantitative and qualitative research methods. The quantitative studies (Study I, II and III) were based on data from the Kungsholmen Project, a population based study of elderly people living in a district of the inner city of Stockholm, Sweden. Data collection of the present studies was carried out from the third follow-up 1997-1998. The qualitative data (Study IV) was obtained 2005 through in-depth interviews with 25 elderly men and women, aged 85-97 years, living in ordinary households in Stockholm, Sweden. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used for the interviews.

Results: The findings in Study I demonstrated that cardiovascular diseases are very frequent in this population (62%). Heart failure (47%) and hypertension (37%) were the most common conditions; and diuretics (69%), nitrates (31%) and cardiac glycosides (30%) were the most commonly prescribed drugs. Multivariate regression analyses showed that while being affected by a CV disease did not affect the emotional well-being of the participants (PANAS-PA, p=0.171; PANAS-NA, p=0.209), the use of cardiac glycosides (p=0.006) and nitrates (p=0.008) was associated with increased negative feelings. Study II revealed that 88% of the population took medicines on a regular basis, and only 23% of them received help with the handling of their medicines. Using logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic variables, cognitive and functional status, female gender (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.2-6.5) was the only variable associated with regular use of medicines. The results also showed that older age and functional disability as measured by ADL, increased the risk of receiving help with medicines, while higher cognitive status decreased the odds of receiving help. Using multiple regression models, we found that the only factor related to not receiving help from a family member was that of living alone (OR:0.05; 95% CI: 0.006-0.4). Study III showed that the prevalence of pain among very old persons was 46%, and the prevalence of pain treatment was 71%. Results from logistic regression analysis using all variables in the model indicated that pain reporting was not associated with age, gender or living conditions, but decreased with decreasing cognitive status and with increasing functional disability. Furthermore, pain treatment was not associated with age, gender, living conditions, cognitive and functional status. The qualitative data in Study IV indicated that most of the participants managed their medicines by themselves and were very content with this. Those elderly who received help with their medicines were also very pleased with this help. The findings also revealed that the most important components for the elderly to be able to remain living in their homes and to handle their medicines by themselves, were to have good cognitive ability, to be independent and to get support with their medicines from a close person as a back-up.

Conclusions: This study revealed that a large proportion of very old people (¡Ý84 years) were living in ordinary households and used medicines regularly. Being a woman and living alone were associated with receiving help with medicines from the community help services. Cognitive and functional ability were revealed to be significant factors in the management of medicines, but also to affect the pain reporting, and type of received pain treatment. Most of the older participants managed to handle their medicines by themselves, and were very pleased by doing this. However, most of them were concerned about the risk of losing their memory, as they are getting older, because they knew that they would not be able to manage themselves any more and therefore would have to move to an institution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Karolinska University Press, 2007. 56 p.
Keyword
Drug use, Medicine management, Very old, Aged 84 and older, Ordinary households, Community, Well-being, Cognitive status, Functional ability, Population-based, In-depth-interviews, Quantitative and qualitative methods, Sweden
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-139 (URN)978-91-7140-979-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-03-21, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-04-27 Created: 2010-03-12 Last updated: 2016-06-09Bibliographically approved

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