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Lluch-Girbés, E., Requejo-Salinas, N., Fernández-Matías, R., Revert, E., Vila Mejías, M., Rezende Camargo, P., . . . Cools, A. (2023). Kinetic chain revisited: Consensus expert opinion on terminology, clinical reasoning, examination and treatment in people with shoulder pain. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery, 32(8), e415-e428, Article ID S1058-2746(23)00082-4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinetic chain revisited: Consensus expert opinion on terminology, clinical reasoning, examination and treatment in people with shoulder pain
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2023 (English)In: Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery, ISSN 1058-2746, E-ISSN 1532-6500, Vol. 32, no 8, p. e415-e428, article id S1058-2746(23)00082-4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To determine the most appropriate terminology and issues related to clinical reasoning, examination and treatment of the kinetic chain (KC) in people with shoulder pain by an international experts panel.

DESIGN: Delphi study METHODS: A three-round Delphi study that involved an international panel of experts with extensive clinical, teaching and research experience in the study topic was conducted. A search equation of terms related to KC in Web of Science and a manual search were used to find the experts. Participants were asked to rate items across five different domains (terminology, clinical reasoning, subjective examination, physical examination and treatment) using a 5-point Likert-type scale. An Aiken's Validity Index ≥ 0.7 was considered indicative of group consensus.

RESULTS: Participation rate was 30.2% (n=16) while retention rate was high throughout the 3 rounds (100%, 93.8%, 100%). A total of 15 experts from different fields and countries completed the study. After the three rounds, consensus was reached on 102 items: 3 items were included in the "terminology" domain, 17 items in the "rationale and clinical reasoning" domain, 11 items in the "subjective examination" domain, 44 items in the "physical examination" domain and 27 items in the "treatment" domain. "Terminology" was the domain with the highest level of more agreement with two items achieving an Aiken's V of 0.93, whereas "physical examination" and "treatment" of the KC where the two areas with less consensus. Together with "terminology" items, one item from the "treatment" and two items from the "rationale and clinical reasoning" domains reached the highest level of agreement (v=0.93 and 0.92, respectively).

CONCLUSION: This study defined a list of 102 items across five different domains (terminology, rationale and clinical reasoning, subjective examination, physical examination and treatment) regarding to KC in people with shoulder pain. The term KC was preferred and a definition for this concept agreed. Dysfunction of a segment in the chain (i.e., weak link) was agreed to result in altered performance or injury to distal segments. Experts considered important to assess and treat the KC in particular in throwing/overhead athletes and agreed that no one size fits all approach exist when implementing shoulder KC exercises within the rehabilitation process. Further research is now required to determine the validity of the identified items.

Keywords
Delphi study, Clinical reasoning, Examination, Kinetic chain, Shoulder pain, Terminology
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-4771 (URN)10.1016/j.jse.2023.01.018 (DOI)36796714 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-04-03 Created: 2023-04-03 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Fernandez-Fernandez, J., Moreno-Perez, V., Cools, A., Nakamura, F. Y., Teixeira, A. S., Ellenbecker, T., . . . Sanz-Rivas, D. (2023). The effects of a compensatory training program adding an isoinertial device in the shoulder function on young tennis players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 37(5), 1096-1103
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of a compensatory training program adding an isoinertial device in the shoulder function on young tennis players
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 1096-1103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to analyze whether a compensatory training program, including isoinertial flywheel training, could reduce shoulder imbalances in a group of asymptomatic young tennis players. After an initial evaluation, 26 young tennis players were assigned to either a supervised flywheel training group (FTG, n = 13) or a control group (CG, n = 13). Shoulder passive internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM) as well as shoulder IR and ER maximal isometric strength were measured before and after a 12-week training intervention, performed 3 times per week. After the intervention, results showed significant changes for IR (p < 0.001, effect size [ES] = 1.83) and ER (p < 0.001, ES = 1.77) on the dominant (D) side, and IR on the nondominant (ND) side (p < 0.001, ES = 2.24) in the FTG compared with the CG. Regarding the ROM values, results showed that the FTG achieved significantly greater increases for the IR ROM (p < 0.001, ES = 3.32) and total ROM (TROM) (p = 0.004, ES = 1.39) on the D and ND sides (IR ROM: p = 0.002, ES = 1.53; TROM: p < 0.001, ES = 2.35) than the CG. Moreover, the CG displayed larger decrements in ER ROM (p = 0.016, ES = 1.12) on the ND side after the training period than the FTG. The conducted compensatory training program was effective to increase the ER strength and IR mobility of the FTG players, which led to a reduction in the glenohumeral imbalances.

National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-4674 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0000000000004374 (DOI)36399152 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-12-13 Created: 2022-12-13 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved
Johansson, F., Cools, A., Gabbett, T., Fernandez-Fernandez, J. & Skillgate, E. (2022). Association between spikes in external training load and shoulder injuries in competitive adolescent tennis players: The SMASH cohort study. Sports Health, 103-110, Article ID 19417381211051643.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between spikes in external training load and shoulder injuries in competitive adolescent tennis players: The SMASH cohort study
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2022 (English)In: Sports Health, ISSN 1941-0921, p. 103-110, article id 19417381211051643Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) and complaints/injuries in young tennis players. Primary aims of this study were to investigate if accumulated external workload "spikes" in ACWR of tennis training, match play, and fitness training, and to see if high or low workload/age ratio were associated with the rate of shoulder complaints/injuries in competitive adolescent tennis players. Additional aims were to report the incidence of complaints/injuries stratified by sex and level of play and to describe shoulder injury characteristics.

HYPOTHESIS: Rapid increases in external workload are associated with the incidence of shoulder complaints and injuries.

STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3.

METHODS: At baseline, 301 adolescent competitive tennis players, 13 to 19 years, were screened and followed weekly for 52 weeks with questionnaires, in the years 2018 to 2019. Information about time-varying accumulated external workload spikes (uncoupled ACWR >1.3), and workload/age ratio, in 252 uninjured players were used in Cox regression analyses with the outcomes shoulder complaints (≥20) and injuries (≥40) (Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire).

RESULTS: For each additional workload spike in tennis training/match play, the hazard rate ratio (HRR) was 1.26 (95% CI, 1.13-1.40) for a shoulder complaint and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.15-1.39) for a shoulder injury. The HRR for fitness training was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.02-1.20) for a shoulder complaint and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.09-1.27) for a shoulder injury. Workload/age ratio was not associated with the rate of shoulder complaints or injuries.

CONCLUSION: Accumulated external workload spikes of tennis training, match play, and/or fitness training are associated with a higher rate of shoulder complaints and shoulder injuries in competitive adolescent tennis players.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Consistency in training load on a weekly basis is most likely more beneficial for adolescent tennis players regarding shoulder complaints/injuries than a training schedule comprising rapid increases (ie, spikes) in workload.

Keywords
Acute:Chronic Workload Ratio (ACWR), Adolescent, Injury, Shoulder, Tennis, Workload
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-4252 (URN)10.1177/19417381211051643 (DOI)34693828 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-12-07 Created: 2021-12-07 Last updated: 2022-10-13Bibliographically approved
Johansson, F., Tranaeus, U., Asker, M., Skillgate, E. & Johansson, F. (2022). Athletic identity and shoulder overuse injury in competitive adolescent tennis players: The Smash cohort study. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 4, Article ID 940934.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Athletic identity and shoulder overuse injury in competitive adolescent tennis players: The Smash cohort study
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 940934Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Our primary aim was to determine if athletic identity is prospectively associated with shoulder overuse injuries. Secondly, we aimed to determine if athletic identity is prospectively associated with playing through pain and to describe how athletic identity relates to sex, age, playing level, weekly training load, and match volume.

Methods: A cohort of 269 adolescent tennis players were followed over a period of 52 weeks. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard rate ratio (HRR) of first-time shoulder overuse injury associated with every 10-unit increase on the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS).

Results: The adjusted HRR of shoulder overuse injury was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.36-2.20) and the odds ratio of playing through pain was 2.41 (95% CI: 0.74-8.96) for every 10 unit increase on AIMS. The level of athletic identity was higher among players at the national level than among players at the regional level and was weakly correlated to weekly hours of tennis matches, tennis training, and fitness training.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that higher levels of athletic identity may be associated with a lower incidence of shoulder overuse injuries, and potentially with playing through pain, although these results are inconclusive due to wide confidence intervals.

Keywords
Athletic identity, Injury, Overuse injury, Shoulder, Tennis
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-4580 (URN)10.3389/fspor.2022.940934 (DOI)35873205 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-09-23 Created: 2022-09-23 Last updated: 2022-09-23Bibliographically approved
Johansson, F., Asker, M., Malmberg, A., Fernandez-Fernandez, J., Warnqvist, A. & Cools, A. (2022). Eccentric and isometric shoulder rotation strength and range of motion: Normative values for adolescent competitive tennis players. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 4, Article ID 798255.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eccentric and isometric shoulder rotation strength and range of motion: Normative values for adolescent competitive tennis players
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 798255Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate isometric internal rotation (IR), external rotation (ER), abduction (ABD), and eccentric external rotation (eccER) shoulder strength and rotational range of motion (ROM) in adolescent male and female competitive tennis players. Additional aims of the study were to provide a tennis-specific normative database based on a large sample of players to deepen the knowledge regarding shoulder strength and ROM for adolescent competitive tennis players, and to discuss differences based on sex, age, and level of play. Shoulder strength and ROM was assessed in 301 adolescent competitive tennis players, 176 boys and 125 girls with a mean age of 14.6 and 14.4 years, respectively. Outcome variables of interest were isometric IR and ER strength, ABD strength, eccER shoulder strength, intermuscular strength ratios ER/IR and eccER/IR, IR ROM, ER ROM, and total range of motion (TROM). A General Linear Model two-way ANOVA was used to analyze differences in sex, age, and level of play. The findings of this study demonstrated age, side, and sex differences in the shoulder isometric strength, the eccER strength and ROM in adolescent competitive tennis players. Furthermore, when strength was expressed as ratios ER/IR and eccER/IR both sexes showed a lower ratio for eccER/IR in national players (0.95 ± 0.22 and 0.95 ± 0.23) compared to regional players (1.01 ± 0.32 and 1.07 ± 0.29) for male and female players, respectively. In conclusion, this paper presents a tennis-specific normative database for shoulder rotation strength and ROM in adolescent male and female competitive players. The key points in this evaluation are strength values normalized to body mass, intermuscular ratios, and TROM.

Keywords
Adolescent, Hand-held dynamometry, Normative database, Range of motion, Shoulder, Strength, Tennis
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-4364 (URN)10.3389/fspor.2022.798255 (DOI)35252855 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-03-31 Created: 2022-03-31 Last updated: 2023-01-19Bibliographically approved
Johansson, F., Gabbett, T., Svedmark, P. & Skillgate, E. (2022). External training load and the association with back pain in competitive adolescent tennis players: Results from the SMASH cohort study. Sports Health, 14(1), 111-118, Article ID 19417381211051636.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>External training load and the association with back pain in competitive adolescent tennis players: Results from the SMASH cohort study
2022 (English)In: Sports Health, ISSN 1941-0921, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 111-118, article id 19417381211051636Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: In young tennis players, high loads on the spine and high training volumes in relation to age are associated with a high lifetime prevalence of back pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if accumulated external workload "spikes" in the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) of tennis training, match play, and fitness training, and if high or low workload/age ratio were associated with back pain events in competitive adolescent tennis players. Additional aims were to report the incidence of back pain stratified by sex and level of play and to describe the characteristics of players with back pain.

HYPOTHESIS: Rapid increases in external workload are associated with the incidence of back pain.

STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study of 198 competitive tennis players, 13 to 19 years, with a weekly follow-up for 52 consecutive weeks.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3.

METHODS: Accumulated external workload spikes (uncoupled ACWR >1.3), and the workload/age ratio, were time-varying exposures in Cox regression analyses with the outcome back pain (pain intensity ≥2/10 in the lower back and/or in the upper back/neck with a pain-related disability).

RESULTS: For each additional workload spike in tennis training/match play, the hazard rate ratio (HRR) was 1.17 (95% CI, 1.06-1.28) for back pain. The corresponding HRR for fitness training was 1.13 (95% CI, 1.05-1.22). Training workload/age ratio was not related to back pain.

CONCLUSION: Accumulated external workload spikes of tennis training, match play, and/or fitness training are associated with a higher rate of back pain events in competitive adolescent tennis players.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Back pain is a troublesome clinical problem that may affect the performance of talented young tennis players. Structuring the training schedule to minimize rapid increases (ie, spikes) of training load on a weekly basis may enhance performance and reduce back pain in adolescent tennis players.

Keywords
Acute:Chronic Workload Ratio (ACWR), Adolescent, Back pain, Cohort study, Injury, Tennis, Workload
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-4253 (URN)10.1177/19417381211051636 (DOI)34693813 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-12-07 Created: 2021-12-07 Last updated: 2022-10-13Bibliographically approved
Cools, A. M., Maenhout, A. G., Vanderstukken, F., Declève, P., Johansson, F. & Borms, D. (2021). The challenge of the sporting shoulder: From injury prevention through sport-specific rehabilitation toward return to play. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 64(4), Article ID S1877-0657(20)30082-8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The challenge of the sporting shoulder: From injury prevention through sport-specific rehabilitation toward return to play
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2021 (English)In: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1877-0657, E-ISSN 1877-0665, Vol. 64, no 4, article id S1877-0657(20)30082-8Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Shoulder injuries and sports-related shoulder pain are substantial burdens for athletes performing a shoulder loading sport. The burden of shoulder problems in the athletic population highlights the need for prevention strategies, effective rehabilitation programs, and a individually based return-to-play (RTP) decision. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss each of these 3 challenges in the sporting shoulder, to assist the professional in: (1) preventing injury; (2) providing evidence-based practice rehabilitation and; (3) to guide the athlete toward RTP. The challenges for injury prevention may be found in the search for (the interaction between) relevant risk factors, develop valid screening tests, and implement feasible injury prevention programmes with maximal adherence from the athletes. Combined analytical and functional testing seems mandatory screening an athlete's performance. Many questions arise when rehabilitating the overhead athlete, from exercise selection, over the value of stretching, toward kinetic chain implementation and progression to high performance training. Evidence-based practice should be driven by the available research, clinical expertise and the patient's expectations. Deciding when to return to sport after a shoulder injury is complex and multifactorial. The main concern in the RTP decision is to minimize the risk of re-injury. In the absence of a "gold standard", clinicians may rely on general guidelines, based on expert opinion, regarding cutoff values for normal range of motion, strength and function, with attention to risk tolerance and load management.

Keywords
Injury, Prevention, Rehabilitation, Return-to-play, Shoulder, Sports
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-3745 (URN)10.1016/j.rehab.2020.03.009 (DOI)32320753 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-06-09 Created: 2020-06-09 Last updated: 2021-09-03Bibliographically approved
Björklund, G., Swarén, M., Norman, M., Alonso, J. & Johansson, F. (2020). Från tennisbanan till labbet och tillbaka - är det ens möjligt?. In: : . Paper presented at Riksidrottsförbundets Elitidrottskonferens.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Från tennisbanan till labbet och tillbaka - är det ens möjligt?
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2020 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-3928 (URN)
Conference
Riksidrottsförbundets Elitidrottskonferens
Available from: 2021-02-02 Created: 2021-02-02 Last updated: 2021-02-04Bibliographically approved
Björklund, G., Swarén, M., Norman, M., Alonso, J. & Johansson, F. (2020). Metabolic demands, center of mass movement and fractional utilization of VO2max in elite adolescent tennis players during on-court drills. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 2, Article ID 92.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metabolic demands, center of mass movement and fractional utilization of VO2max in elite adolescent tennis players during on-court drills
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2020 (English)In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 2, article id 92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was to investigate the exercise intensity and energy expenditure during four types of on-court tennis drills. Five female and five male tennis players participated in the study (age: 17 ± 2 years; VO2max : 54 ± 6 ml·kg-1·min-1). Anthropometric measures were taken for each player and, on separate days, each player performed (i) treadmill running to determine VO2max and (ii) four different tennis drills (Drill1-4) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE 6-20), and displacement of center of mass (m) using 3D kinematics were recorded. The drills were designed to simulate match play with 90 s of rest between each drill. A repeated two-way ANOVA was used for physiological and biomechanical data and Friedman's test for RPE using < α 0.05. Fractional utilization of VO2max was greatest during Drill1 81.8 ± 7.0% and lowest during Drill4 72.4 ± 5.2% (p < 0.001) with no difference between sexes (p > 0.05). The highest energy expenditure was during Drill1 and lowest during Drill4 (77 ± 15 and 49 ± 11 kcal, respectively, p < 0.05). Energy expenditure per meter for Drill1-Drill4 was subsequently reduced for each drill with 10.5 ± 2.1, 9.9 ± 2.2, 7.6 ± 1.7, and 8.0 ± 1.6 J·kg-1·m-1 (p < 0.01). There were no interaction effects for any of these variables. RPE (6-20) and blood lactate concentration post Drill1-Drill4 were 17.5, 15.5, and 13.0 (overall, legs and arms, p < 0.001) and 5.9 ± 2.0, 4.9 ± 1.9, 5.6 ± 2.0, and 5.0 ± 2.2 mmol·l-1 (p < 0.05). The findings of this study demonstrate that the on-court tennis drills performed here are suitable for high intensity training in junior tennis players. The energy expenditure per minute is comparable to similar sports whereas the energy expenditure per meter is notably greater. 

Keywords
Biomechanics, Exercise intensity, Motion capture, Racket sport, Work economy
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-3902 (URN)10.3389/fspor.2020.00092 (DOI)33345083 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-01-05 Created: 2021-01-05 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Johansson, F., Skillgate, E., Gabbett, T., Fernandez, J. & Cools, A. (2020). Workload and shoulder injuries in adolescent competitive Swedish tennis players: The SMASH cohort study. In: : . Paper presented at Sportskongres, Köpenhamn, Danmark, 30 januari-1 februari 2020.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workload and shoulder injuries in adolescent competitive Swedish tennis players: The SMASH cohort study
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2020 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-3929 (URN)
Conference
Sportskongres, Köpenhamn, Danmark, 30 januari-1 februari 2020
Available from: 2021-02-03 Created: 2021-02-03 Last updated: 2021-02-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7345-2313

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